American engineer Norton explained his theorem in 1926 after 43 years publishing Thevenin’s theorem. Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem.

Nortons theorem states that “a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent current source IN in parallel with a resistance RN where RN is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals and IN is the short circuit current through the terminals when all the independent sources are turned off”.

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Thevenin’s theorem

Practically always occurs that a particular element like load is always variable when the other elements are fixed in a circuit. If we consider our household as example a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a variable load. Every time the variable is changed, the complete circuit has to be analyzed […]

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Practical transformer on load

The device which raises or lowering voltage is called transformer. Previously I have discussed about ideal transformer and practical transformer, working principal of transformer also. Transformer gives same output power which we give as input power but raise or down voltage corresponding current decrease or increase. Input and output frequency is same. We also know […]

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Practical transformer on no load

Practical transformer Practical transformer is different from ideal transformer in many respects. Ideal transformer has no losses but practical transformer have Iron losses Magnetic leakage Winding resistances

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Ideal transformer

Ideal transformer on no load  A transformer is ideal if it has No leakage flux No windings resistance No iron loss in core Ideal transformer can not possible physically. But it gives powerful tool in the analysis of a practical transformer. Properties of ideal and practical transformer is very close each other.

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Electrical transformer basics

The efficiency of electrical power transmission has improved for using higher voltages.  Alternating current has entirely replaced by the direct current for power transmission and distribution. For producing higher voltages ac generator is better than dc generator. Transformer is an electrical device for transferring electrical energy one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency. It […]

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An inductor is a passive two terminal element designed to store energy in its magnetic field. Inductor also called reactor or coil. It consists of conductor like wire wound into a coil. When current passing through the coil, energy is stored temporarily into the magnetic field. Applications of inductor in our daily life are transformers, […]

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What is capacitor?

A capacitor is an element which stores charges. It is a passive element as it stores energy. Michael Faraday invented capacitor. The unit of capacitance is Farad was the name of honor of Michael Faraday. In electronics, communication, power systems, computer etc field capacitors are extensively used. In circuit capacitor in an important circuit element, […]

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