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Voltage divider rule

Voltage divides in series circuit only. In parallel circuit voltage remains same. All of the loads are connected parallelly across voltage source so that loads have two common points with source positive and negative terminals.

Kirchhoff’s law

Kirchhoff gave two laws for current and voltage. First law is called KCL and second law is called KVL.
Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): This is the first law of Kirchhoff’s about current. How current divide in a circuit this law explains.

Thermodynamic process

The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. Two types of system are i) close system and ii) open system.

Logic gates

Basic gates

There are three basic gates in digital electronics. These are NOT gate, AND gate & OR gate.

NOT gate / Inverter: NOT gate is called inverter also. Operation of NOT gate is if input is high output is low and if input is low then output is high. Another words output is always inverse or toggle of input. So it is called inverter. Circuit diagram of inverter is given below Read more on Logic gates…

Norton’s theorem

American engineer Norton explained his theorem in 1926 after 43 years publishing Thevenin’s theorem. Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem.

Nortons theorem states that “a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent current source IN in parallel with a resistance RN where RN is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals and IN is the short circuit current through the terminals when all the independent sources are turned off”.

Thevenin’s theorem

Practically always occurs that a particular element like load is always variable when the other elements are fixed in a circuit. If we consider our household as example a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a variable load. Every time the variable is changed, the complete circuit has to be analyzed again. This is harassment for electrical engineer. To avoid this problem we can use the method of Thevenin’s theorem. The fixed circuit is replaced by an equivalent circuit and according to this method.