The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. Two types of system are i) close system and ii) open system.

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Logic gates

Basic gates There are three basic gates in digital electronics. These are NOT gate, AND gate & OR gate. NOT gate / Inverter: NOT gate is called inverter also. Operation of NOT gate is if input is high output is low and if input is low then output is high. Another words output is always […]

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Norton’s theorem

American engineer Norton explained his theorem in 1926 after 43 years publishing Thevenin’s theorem. Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem. Nortons theorem states that “a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent current source IN in parallel with a resistance RN where RN is the input or equivalent resistance at the […]

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Thevenin’s theorem

Practically always occurs that a particular element like load is always variable when the other elements are fixed in a circuit. If we consider our household as example a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a variable load. Every time the variable is changed, the complete circuit has to be analyzed […]

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Practical transformer on load

The device which raises or lowering voltage is called transformer. Previously I have discussed about ideal transformer and practical transformer, working principal of transformer also. Transformer gives same output power which we give as input power but raise or down voltage corresponding current decrease or increase. Input and output frequency is same. We also know […]

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Practical transformer on no load

Practical transformer Practical transformer is different from ideal transformer in many respects. Ideal transformer has no losses but practical transformer have Iron losses Magnetic leakage Winding resistances

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Ideal transformer

Ideal transformer on no load  A transformer is ideal if it has No leakage flux No windings resistance No iron loss in core Ideal transformer can not possible physically. But it gives powerful tool in the analysis of a practical transformer. Properties of ideal and practical transformer is very close each other.

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Electrical transformer basics

The efficiency of electrical power transmission has improved for using higher voltages.  Alternating current has entirely replaced by the direct current for power transmission and distribution. For producing higher voltages ac generator is better than dc generator. Transformer is an electrical device for transferring electrical energy one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency. It […]

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