Definition of Money
Money is anything that serves as a commonly accepted medium of exchange or economic transactions.
Description of money’s evolution:
Some years since, Zelie a singer of the theatre Lyrique at Paris, took part in the Society Islands. She got three pigs, twenty-three turkeys (large bird), forty-four chickens, five thousand cocoanuts, besides considerable quantities of bananas, lemons and oranges. That time it became necessary to feed the pigs and poultry with the fruits.
This example describes barter (exchange goods for other goods without using money). Exchange through barter contrasts with exchange through money. Although barter is better than no trade at all.
As economics develop people no longer barter one good for another instead they sell goods for money and then use money to buy other goods they wish to have.
A nation has two major kinds of policies fiscal policy monetary policy that can be used to pursue its macroeconomic goals
1. Fiscal policy: Fiscal policy consists of government expenditure and taxation. we know it from the definition of fiscal policy. Government expenditures come into two distinct forms – government purchases which comprise spending on goods and services such as purchases of tanks, construction of roads, salaries for judges etc. and government transfer payments which increases the incomes of targeted groups such as the elderly or the unemployed. Government expenditure influences the relative size of collective spending and private consumption.
The other part of fiscal policy refers to the taxation. Taxation affect people’s income, subtracts from incomes, reduces private spending and affects private saving. In addition it affects investment and potential output. It affects the prices of goods and factors of production and thereby affects incentives and behavior.
Fiscal policy is primarily used to affect long-term economic growth through it impact on national saving and investment, it is also used to stimulate in deep or sharp recessions.
Definition of economics: Economics comes from Greek word “Oikonomia”. Adam smith explained the definition of economics in his famous “Wealth of Nations” that “Economics is a science which enquires the cause of wealth.
Prof. Marshall said, “A study of man’s action in the ordinary business of life.”
Difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics
The difference between micro and macro economics are below
- Microeconomics is the study of particular firm, particular household, individual prices, wages, incomes, individual industries, and individual commodities.
- Micro means very small or millionth part.
- The subject or example of microeconomics is about person, an investor, a producer.
- As it analyzes individually it provides a partial concept or partial figure of a country.
- Micro economics is concerned with the individual entities.
The subject of economics is divided into two classifications
- Positive economics
- Normative economics
These two functions are basics of economics. Learning economics starts with these two subjects. Description of positive economics and normative economics are below
- Positive economics: What is positive economics? Positive economics is that economics where the problems of a country and the possible solutions are described based on real component which has occurred, which can be occurred. Positive economics discusses inquiries and finds its reason. It is based on information so that positive economics is called reality based economics; positive economics examples – positive economics deals with such questions as who do doctors earn more that janitors? Did the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA) raise or lower the incomes of most Americans?
Electromotive force and potential difference are not same. They have following differences below
- What is electromotive force? The potential difference between the two terminals of a cell is called electromotive force in an open circuit.
- Electromotive force transmits current both inside and outside the cell.
- Electromotive force emf is the cause.
- Electromotive force is always greater than potential difference.
- Electromotive force creates potential difference entire the circuit.
- Electromotive force does not depend on the resistance of the circuit.
- Electromotive force remains constant.
- The part of the circuit where electrical energy is created from any other energy then that part contains the source of Electromotive force.
The flowing of current through conductor produce heat. We are using this heat due to flow of current in our daily life as in electric iron, electric bulb, electric fuse, electric heater and more. Heating effect of electric current are below
(i) Electric iron: In an iron the upper part is grooved. In this groove a coil is placed. Mica as an insulator is placed between the metal part and the coil, so that there is no electrical connection between them. Mica is a bad conductor of electricity but it is a good conductor of heat. Due to the flow of current through the coil it becomes heated and the heat transferred to the metal part through mica. Finally the metal part becomes heated. Iron is used with the heating effect of an electric current.
(ii) Electric bulb: we see a thick metallic wire in the bulb. It is made of tangsten metal. In a glass vessel or bulb the tangsten wire is kept sealed. The glass bulb is filled with neutral gas or vacuum. Neutral gases are using now a days commonly. The tangsten wire is known as filament when the current flows through the tangsten wire or filament it becomes heated and emit of light. Due to the flow of current heating effect of an electric current used as the source of light.
The difference between resistance and specific resistance are below
- The ratio of the potential difference between the two ends of a conductor to the current flowing through at uniform temperature is called resistance of that conductor.
- The unit of resistance is ohm (Ω).
- Resistance of conductor depends on its length, temperature, cross section area, material of the conductor.
- Resistance is related with a particular conductor.