Voltage divider rule

Voltage divides in series circuit only. In parallel circuit voltage remains same. All of the loads are connected parallelly across voltage source so that loads have two common points with source positive and negative terminals.

Kirchhoff’s law

Kirchhoff gave two laws for current and voltage. First law is called KCL and second law is called KVL. Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): This is the first law of Kirchhoff’s about current. How current divide in a circuit this law ...

Thermodynamic process

The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. ...

Logic gates

Basic gates There are three basic gates in digital electronics. These are NOT gate, AND gate & OR gate. NOT gate / Inverter: NOT gate is called inverter also. Operation of NOT gate is if input is high output is ...

Norton’s theorem

American engineer Norton explained his theorem in 1926 after 43 years publishing Thevenin’s theorem. Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem. Nortons theorem states that “a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent current source IN in ...

Thevenin’s theorem

Practically always occurs that a particular element like load is always variable when the other elements are fixed in a circuit. If we consider our household as example a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a ...

Practical transformer on load

The device which raises or lowering voltage is called transformer. Previously I have discussed about ideal transformer and practical transformer, working principal of transformer also. Transformer gives same output power which we give as input power but raise or down ...

Practical transformer on no load

Practical transformer Practical transformer is different from ideal transformer in many respects. Ideal transformer has no losses but practical transformer have Iron losses Magnetic leakage Winding resistances