Kirchhoff gave two laws for current and voltage. First law is called KCL and second law is called KVL. Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): This is the first law of Kirchhoff’s about current. How current divide in a circuit this law ...

The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. ...

Basic gates There are three basic gates in digital electronics. These are NOT gate, AND gate & OR gate. NOT gate / Inverter: NOT gate is called inverter also. Operation of NOT gate is if input is high output is ...

American engineer Norton explained his theorem in 1926 after 43 years publishing Thevenin’s theorem. Norton’s theorem is similar to Thevenin’s theorem. Nortons theorem states that “a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent current source IN in ...

Practically always occurs that a particular element like load is always variable when the other elements are fixed in a circuit. If we consider our household as example a household outlet terminal may be connected to different appliances constituting a ...

The device which raises or lowering voltage is called transformer. Previously I have discussed about ideal transformer and practical transformer, working principal of transformer also. Transformer gives same output power which we give as input power but raise or down ...

Practical transformer Practical transformer is different from ideal transformer in many respects. Ideal transformer has no losses but practical transformer have Iron losses Magnetic leakage Winding resistances

Ideal transformer on no load A transformer is ideal if it has No leakage flux No windings resistance No iron loss in core Ideal transformer can not possible physically. But it gives powerful tool in the analysis of a practical ...