Electrical Shunt

Galvanometer is very sensitive device. Flow of huge amount current can burn galvanometer or displaces spring of it. For saving galvanometer a small value parallel resistor is connected across it and makes another way out of flowing current. Parallelly connected ...

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Scientist Rumford and Joule did experiment in thermodynamics. In 1847 Joule showed relation between heat and mechanical energy. He explained from his experiment when work done is converted to heat and heat is converted into work done fully. So work ...

Reversible process in thermodynamics

The process is called reversible process which can run back reversely with the same quantity of heat goes forward process. Forward heat and work done is equal with reverse heat quantity and work done.  There is no loss in reversible ...

What is entropy

Suppose in a football game a player always makes foul. So the other good players cannot concentrate in the game and referee also. The foul making player breaks the discipline of playing. So the total game cannot be conducted properly. ...

Voltage divider rule

Voltage divides in series circuit only. In parallel circuit voltage remains same. All of the loads are connected parallelly across voltage source so that loads have two common points with source positive and negative terminals.

Kirchhoff’s law

Kirchhoff gave two laws for current and voltage. First law is called KCL and second law is called KVL. Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): This is the first law of Kirchhoff’s about current. How current divide in a circuit this law ...

Thermodynamic process

The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. ...

Logic gates

Basic gates There are three basic gates in digital electronics. These are NOT gate, AND gate & OR gate. NOT gate / Inverter: NOT gate is called inverter also. Operation of NOT gate is if input is high output is ...