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To understand completely Biot Savart Law some important rules or laws should be known are Maxwell cork screw Law, Fleming’s right hand rule.

If current passes through a conductor it creates a magnetic field around it. The direction of the magnetic field for passing current through conductor explained by Maxwell cork screw Law & Fleming’s right hand rule.

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Galvanometer is very sensitive device. Flow of huge amount current can burn galvanometer or displaces spring of it. For saving galvanometer a small value parallel resistor is connected across it and makes another way out of flowing current. Parallelly connected resistor is called shunt. Total current divides into two ways. Maximum current flows through shunt resistor due to low resistance and small amount of current flow. In this way shunt saves galvanometer from damage.

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Scientist Rumford and Joule did experiment in thermodynamics. In 1847 Joule showed relation between heat and mechanical energy. He explained from his experiment when work done is converted to heat and heat is converted into work done fully. So work done and heat are proportional each other. This is the first law of thermodynamics.

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The process is called reversible process which can run back reversely with the same quantity of heat goes forward process. Forward heat and work done is equal with reverse heat quantity and work done.  There is no loss in reversible process.

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Suppose in a football game a player always makes foul. So the other good players cannot concentrate in the game and referee also. The foul making player breaks the discipline of playing. So the total game cannot be conducted properly.

Similarly increase or decrees of oxygen level in the environment both are difficult for human being.  In that two cases are disorderliness or entropy increases. Disorderliness of any system is called entropy. In other words entropy is a measure of disorderliness.

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The branch of physics where relation between heat and work done is discussed called thermodynamics. In thermodynamic process firstly we have to know about thermodynamic system. What is thermodynamic system? The system is a closed area where thermodynamic substance observed. Two types of system are i) close system and ii) open system.

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Amplifier is an electronic device. The device which increases the value of a signal is called amplifier. In input a weak signal is applied, in output a strong, same shape signal is gained. Amplify means to increase the value of something.

Transistor is used in amplifier. It can amplify a signal many times. In two ways a transistor can amplify a signal

(i) by using high value of output resistance compared to the input resistance,

(ii) by controlling the collector current with the help of base current.

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What is transistor? Transistor is an electronic device. It is made with p and n type semiconductor. When a semiconductor is placed in middle between same type semiconductors the configuration is called transistor. We can say that a transistor is the combination of two diodes connected back to back.

Bardeen W.H. Brattain of Bell telephone laboratories, USA first invented transistor in 1948. After the invention of transistor revolution occurred in electronic world. Before the invention of transistor big size circuits were used. But transistor turned them into a tiny size.

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