Wireless Transmission Media

For unguided media, transmission and reception are achieved by means of an antenna. For transmission, the antenna radiates electromagnetic energy into the medium (usually air), and for reception, the antenna picks up electromagnetic radiation waves from the surrounding medium. There ...

Optical Fiber

This post is divided into three parts this is part 3 to view part 1 click here and to view part 2 click here. # Fiber optic communication Physical Description: An optical fiber is a thin (2 to 125 pm), ...

Guided transmission media

This post is divided into three parts this is part 2 to view part 1 click here and to view part 3 click here. # Guided transmission media: For guided transmission media, the transmission capacity, in terms of either data ...

Transmission Media

This post is divided into three parts this is part 1 to view part 2 click here and to view part 3 click here. Transmission medium is the physical path between transmitter and receiver in a data transmission system. Transmission ...

Star topology for a Lan

This post is divided into two parts this is part 2 to view part 1 click here. 4) Star Topology: In the star LAN topology, each station is directly connected to a common central node. Typically, each station attaches to ...

Computer Network Topologies

This post is divided into two parts this is part 1 to view part 2 click here. The basic types of network topology as shown in fig 12.1. For the physical layer, we confine for to an introduction of the ...

Functions of communication protocol

This post is divided into two parts this is part 2 to view part 1 click here. Finally, a protocol may be either standard or nonstandard. A nonstandard protocol is one built for a specific communications situation or, at most, ...

Functions of Protocol

This post is divided into two parts this is part 1 to view part 2 click here. Characteristics: The concepts of distributed processing and computer network system imply that entities in different systems need to communicate. We use the terms ...